Managing by Motivation: The MbM Questionnaire by Marshall Sashkin, PhD (Human Resource Development Press) is one of the simplest tools we have seen for getting a read on what inspires your people to succeed. Once you plot employees' answers to the 20 questions, it is clear what motivates them: safety/security, social/belonging, self-esteem, or self-actualization. Sashkin's guide discusses what drives people with each of these four tendencies — useful information for managers who want to tailor their motivational strategies.